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Bureau of Land Management
Visual Resources

Non-Federal Agency Visual Impact Mitigation Guidance

A variety of non-federal agencies, organizations, and individuals have published visual impact mitigation guidance relevant to utility-scale energy facilities. A full listing is not possible; however, the following sources are examples:

  • Clean Energy States Alliance, 2011, A Visual Impact Assessment Process for Wind Energy Projects. Available at:
  • Committee on Environmental Impacts of Wind Energy Projects, 2007, Environmental Impacts of Wind-Energy Projects, National Research Council, National Academies Press, Washington DC.
  • Gipe, P.B., 1998, "Design As If People Matter: Aesthetic Guidelines for the Wind Industry," in Proceedings of the International Workshop on Wind Energy and Landscape (WEL), C.F. Ratto and G. Solari (editors), Genoa, Italy, June 26?27, 1997, published by A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
  • Gipe, P.B., 2002, "Design As If People Mattered: Aesthetic Guidelines for a Wind Power Future," in Wind Power in View: Energy Landscapes in a Crowded World, M.J. Pasqualetti et al. (editors), Academic Press, New York, NY.
  • International Finance Corporation (IFC) & World Bank Group, 2007, Environmental, Health, and Safety Guidelines for Wind Energy, IFC. Available at
  • New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, 2000, "Assessing and Mitigating Visual Impacts," in The DEC Policy System, July 31. Available at
  • Renewable Energy Action Team (California Energy Commission, California Department of Fish and Game, U.S. Department of Interior Bureau of Land Management, and Fish and Wildlife Service), 2010, Best Management Practices and Guidance Manual: Desert Renewable Energy Projects, REAT?1000?2010?009, California Energy Commission, Siting, Transmission and Environmental Protection Division. Available at Accessed Sept. 19, 2012.